I’ve posted a half-day “The Shell for Scientists” tutorial that I’ve given variants on a number of times; the motivating problem, provided by Greg Wilson for a two-day set of of tutorials at the University of Toronto, was cleaning up a bunch of auditory lab data on people’s cochlear implants.
The focus is on productivity and automation; PDF slides are available here (although I really should translate them into a markdown-based format to make them more re-usable).
Covered are a number of basic shell commands
As well as simple script writing. There is some optional material on make (again, for automation) and ssh/scp (because that was frequently necessary for tutorials at SciNet). There are a number of hands-on exercises sprinkled throughout.